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論證過程分為三步，第一步，公司、個人以及政府為什么對污染負金錢上的責任（assume financial responsibility for the pollution）,顯然，公司和個人是污染的主要制造者（main waste producer），所以可以談到污染環境的個人行為或者公司行為(companies take advantage of natural resources for profitable or lucrative purposes OR private cars discharge amounts of pollutants into the air)；但是考生比較難想到的是“為什么政府要對污染負責任”，因為“給公民提供一個干凈健康的環境是政府的份內責任”。第二步，題干中的第二個關鍵詞“pay for”，支付了之后，對公司和個人而言，罰金起到了警戒和威懾力的作用，令他們不會重蹈覆轍(penalty serves as a deterrent to curb the pollution )；對政府而言，一是稅收治理環境污染；二是投資新能源的開發，從根源上解決污染問題(governments need to be dedicated to transforming waste into renewable material by investing resources in it )。第三步，對自己的邏輯框架進行漢譯英，加上連詞，理清句與句之間的關系，文章成型。
Waste is a direct product from pollution caused by companies and individuals. Either companies and individuals or governments take the financial obligation for the pollution. In my opinion, both private and public sectors should be responsible for this.
Those who advocate that private sectors and individuals bear the cost base their statement on the grounds that both of them are the main waste producer of pollution, i.e. they pour amounts of toxic chemicals into the air, soils and rivers. Specifically speaking, private cars, which could have been beneficial to the convenience of all human beings, are partially to blame for the air pollution. These vehicles discharge amount of pollutants into the air. Also, these self-centered companies sometimes exploit natural resources such as forests, water land and agricultural lands, beyond all their limits just to increase the profit. If these companies are not obliged to share the amount of money, which is required to curb pollutions, they will become more short-sighted in terms of making more money without even caring about the impact on climate change and environment. Therefore, the penalty for their pollution serves as a deterrent to control the total amount of waste produced by private sector and individuals. Meanwhile, the clean-up fees exert a great influence on them to raise environmental awareness.
The government still bears the cost of pollution by taking advantage of the tax levied by public sector to look for scientific ways to alleviate the environmental problems. Undoubtedly, the government has more resources, including specialists and relevant expertise, to deal with large-scale projects. Furthermore, the relevant departments need to be dedicated to transforming waste into recycled or useful materials, thus meeting the need of sustainable development. The long-term solution could strike a balance between environment and economic development.
To sum up, all the social members should bear the bills to create a clean environment. It is the cooperation and coordination that facilitates a green environment and a sustainable development of one after another generation.
Those who advocate that private sectors and individuals bear the cost base their statement on the grounds that both of them are the main waste producer of pollution，i.e. they pour amounts of toxic chemicals into the air, soils and rivers.
本句話中，筆者運用一個定語從句以及一個同位語從句對題干的前半部分進行paraphrase，“advocate … bear the cost”修飾those（這些人支持公司和個人該對環境負責），整個長句子中的謂語部分為“base sth on”，同時，on the grounds that 為“……的原因”，而在這個修飾grounds的同位語從句中，i.e.為“in other words”，進行具體的解釋。整句話的翻譯即“有些人認為，公司和個人該對污染負責，他們持這種觀點的原因是公司和個人是廢品制造者，換句話說，他們排放大量有毒化學物質到空氣、土壤和河流中?！?